Una selección de los titulares publicados en el New York Times sobre la guerra civil en Guadalajara.
SPANISH REBELS EXPECT BIG FORCE FROM ABROAD; PLAN NEW MADRID DRIVE; JANUARY PUSH SEEN
January 1, 1937, Friday
Insurgent leaders indicated they expected reinforcements shortly and would then launch a furious-offensive on Madrid. The Spanish Embassy in Paris likewise forecast a Rebel drive in midJanuary, saying Germany would send possibly “two full divisions” into Spain.
YEAR’S END IN SPAIN SEES SHIFT IN WAR; Leftists Now on OffensiveBattles Rage in Tagus and Guadalajara Areas.
The most memorable and unhappy year in the history of modern Spain ends today with the government forces on the offensive in every civil war sector except possibly Andalusia.
LEFT GAINS IN SPAIN MENACE SIGUENZA; Loyalists Take Three Towns in Renewed Offensive in Guadalajara Sector. REBELS MASS AT 3 POINTS Concerted Attack on Madrid Is Possible–Defenders Doubt Move Could Succeed. Germans Handicapped 200,000 Implacable Foes Threat to Valencia Seen Rebels Claim Gains in South
By HERBERT L. MATTHEWSWireless to THE NEW YORK TIMES.
REBELS DESERTING STEADILY IN SPAIN; Continual Defections Caused by Shattered Morale Add to Loyalists’ Fresh Confidence.
A straw that shows the way the wind is blowing in the Spanish civil war is the small but steady stream of deserters coming into the government lines on the various fronts. Sometimes they come singly and sometimes in groups, which rarely exceed four or five men.
Rebels Attack on the Northeast To Draw Away Madrid Defenders; Launch a Powerful Thrust on Thirty-Mile Front in Guadalajara Area-Insurgents Also Mass Near Cordoba, Presumably to Try to Seize the Mercury Deposits NEW REBEL DRIVE ON MADRID BEGINS Almadrones Bears Brunt REBELS IN NEW DRIVE Insurgents Mass Near Mines Rebels Land Troops
The Insurgents unexpectedly launched a heavy attack on the Guadalajara front, northeast of Madrid, at dawn today. Late this afternoon fighting was still going on.
REBEL DRIVE USES 2 ITALIAN DIVISIONS; Franco Sends 14,000 to 16,000 Foreigners Into Attack on Guadalajara Front
Official sources late tonight reported government forces were resisting stubbornly two Italian divisions in fierce night-fighting south of Alaminos, less than sixty-five miles northeast of Madrid. They asserted the divisions were commanded by an Italian general named Pozzi.
INSURGENTS PUSH NEARER TO MADRID IN HEAVY FIGHTING; Rebels Report Advance of 12 Miles Toward Guadalajara in Offensive From Northeast DRIVE CHECKED, FOE SAYS Loyalists Declare the Rebels Halted in Counter-AttackCapital Is Shelled Anew Loyalists Soon Give Way Rebel Drive Checked, Madrid Says INSURGENTS PUSH NEARER TO MADRID Italians Put at 15,000 Italian Tactics Evident More Italians Reported in Spain
March 11, 1937, Thursday
General Francisco Franco’s Insurgent troops operating against Madrid from the northeast consolidated today ground won in a twelve-mile advance in the Guadalajara sector. At the same time they reported that other forces had pushed back government troops in the Jarama zone, southeast of Madrid.
WAR ON SPAIN LAID TO ITALY BY MADRID; Loyalist Officials Hold Time Has Come to Admit Conflict Is an International One VALENCIA PLANS PROTEST 30,000 Blackshirts Reported Fighting at Guadalajara in Four or Five Divisions General Held in Command Valencia Plans Protest 30,000 Italians Fighting
March 12, 1937, Friday
High government authorities, charging 30,000 Italian soldiers were driving toward Madrid with the Insurgent army in Guadalajara, accused Italy tonight of waging an “undeclaredwar” on Spain.
MADRID IS DOOMED TO BE STARVED OUT,RESIDENT BELIEVES; Failure of Loyalist Forces to Develop Any Offensive Power Believed Fatal
March 12, 1937, Friday
In an uncensored letter received in Paris from Madrid today, mailed March 6, one of the best observers of the situation in Madrid writes: “t
REBELS GAIN PLAIN AT GUADALAJARAIN MADRID DRIVE; Emerge From Hills 61/2 Miles From Town, Giving Full Play to Mechanized Forces
March 13, 1937, Saturday
General Francisco Franco’s Span ish Insurgent forces now have reached open country in their thrust on Madrid from the north east. During the night they estab lished advanced posts beyond Torija, within about six and a half miles of Guadalajara. They have now debouched from the hills into the plains, where their mechanized forces and cavalry can be employedto full advantage.
LOYALIST ATTACK PUSHES BACK FOE AT GUADALAJARA; Italians Lose 3 Miles as Plan of Drive on Madrid Fails– Planes Punish Them; TRIJUEQUE IS UNTENABLE; Rebel Assaults Beaten Off on Jarama Front–Portuguese Massed North of Capital
March 14, 1937, Sunday
MADRID, March 13.–The Italians fighting for the Rebels not only have been stopped on the Guadalajara front, forty-five miles northeast of Madrid, but actually have been pushed back, it became known tonight. There can be no doubt that the first plan of attack, which, according…
MADRID CLIMAX NEARS IN NEW FRANCO DRIVE; Italian Aid Indicates Control Plan May Have Come Too Late to Save City From ‘Fifth Offensive’
March 14, 1937, Sunday
MADRID, March 13.–The grand climax of the struggle for Madrid is approaching. Two Italian divisions are moving against Guadalajara and other divisions may soon be thrusting at the Pardo front.
GERMAN RADIO TELLS OF REBELS’ RETREAT; 10,000 Spanish Loyalists, Aided by Tanks and Planes, Reported in Guadalajara Drive
The German official broadcast from Berlin reported yesterday in a Salamanca dispatch the retreat of the Spanish Rebels on the Guadalajara front. The broadcast follows:
LOYALISTS KEEP UP GUADALAJARA GAIN AS REBELS RETREAT; MORE ITALIANS CAPTURED Government Spokesman Says 100,000 Have Invaded Spain and Offers Evidence AVIATORS REPORT A ROUT But Leftist Commander Warns Much Fighting Remains Before Time for Celebrations Commander Minimizes Gains Loyalists’ Line Improved Artillery, Ammunition, Food, Clothing and Cigarettes Left in Insurgents’ Flight LOYALISTS KEEP UP GUADALAJARA GAIN Planes Pursue Enemy Rebels Drive in Three Lines
The setback administered to Rebel forces on the Guadalajara front during the last three days has assumed large proportions, according to official reports received here.
RUSSIANS HAIL VICTORY; Press Proclaims ‘Savage Blow’ to Italo-German Forces In Spain
A Spanish Loyalist victory north of Guadalajara is prominently proclaimed in the Soviet press. Izvestia announces on its front page in four-column headlines: “Defeat of second and third divisions of the Italian Army; Italian casualties approximately 5,000; government successes in Jarama section.”
REBELS REINFORCED FOR MADRID DRIVE; Another Division Is Moved Up to the Guadalajara FrontFighting Termed Heavy
What was regarded at Insurgent headquarters here as a decisive battle was reported raging on the Guadalajara front northeast of Madrid. The worst weather of the whole Winter had prevailed ever since the big Insurgent offensive against Guadalajara began last Monday.
LOYALISTS PRESS REBELS FROM AIR; Follow Up Their Rout of the Italians By Raiding Brihuega-Leftist Aviation Dominant PLANES BOMB BARCELONA Insurgent Attack Kills 7 and Hurts 34–Itaians Re-Form on the Guadalajara Front
The nearer to the front lines that one g es the more impressive does the government’s success against the Italians fighting as Spanish Rebels appear. This correspondent has just returned from Trijueque, which the Loyalists wrested from Italian hands three days ago.
MOSCOW IS HAPPY OVER WORLD TREND; Cheered by Japan’s New Attitude,Anglo-FrenchView of Italo-German Notes, and Spain MADRID SUCCESS STRESSED One Correspondent Reports the Loyalists Captured Poison-Gas Grenades From Italians Urge Intervention in Spain
Moscow Is cheerful these days for a variety of reasons. Japanese Foreign Minister Naotake Sato’s recent speech, although not commented on in the newspapers here, produced a favorable impression despite his reference to the Communist International-regarded here partly as lipservice to Chancellor Adolf Hitler of Germany.
Eden Queries Italy on Aid to Rebels; Non-Intervention Pact Is Imperiled; Rome Reported to Have Landed Troops at Cadiz After the Neutrality Date, He Tells Commons–8,000 Italians Are Declared Massing for Offensive in Cordoba Zone
March 18, 1937, Thursday
Efforts of twenty-seven European nations to isolate the Spanish civil war appeared to be in jeopardy tonight as Great Britain moved to investigate reports that Italy had permitted “volunteers” to land in Spain.
LOYALISTS EXTEND GUADALAJARA GAIN; Anti-Fascist Italians Lead the Drive on Their Countrymen as Brihuega Is Retaken LEFTISTS SEIZE A COLONY Occupy Villa Cisneros, Capital of Rio de Oro in Africa, When Governor Is Away Reasons for Development Advance Beyond Brihuega Rebels Report Many Foes Slain Lovalists Seize Rio de Oro
March 19, 1937, Friday
Government forces, with anti-Fascist Italians in the van, swept forward again on the Guadalajara front today and recaptured the important town of Brihuega, on the Tajuna River, fifty-two miles northeast of Madrid, from Rebel divisions that lost more than 100 prisoners and a large quantity of war material.
MUSSOLINI QUOTED AS URGING ITALIANS TO VICTORY IN SPAIN; Message Is Said to Have Been Left Behind in the Retreat of His Countrymen LOYALISTS PUSH ADVANCE Go Forward Ten Miles Without Meeting Resistance-Ring Closed Around Oviedo Received on Day of Defeat Italian General Killed MUSSOLINI QUOTED AS ASKING VICTORY Miaja Reports Ten-Mlle Gain Armies Put at 700,000 RETREAT OF ITALIANS Rebels Claim Jarama Gain
March 20, 1937, Saturday
The Spanish Loyalist army’s information department issued this evening a copy of a message purported to have been sent by Premier Benito Mussolini of Italy to General Mancini. The original was said to have been found among five cases of documents captured yesterday at Brihuega, fifty-two miles northeast of Madrid on the Tajuna River.
ITALY IS TWITTED BY SOVIET PRESS; Papers Play Up the Capture of Brihuega by Spanish Leftists From ‘Expeditionary Force’
March 21, 1937, Sunday
The capture of Brihuega on the Guadalajara front by the Spanish Loyalists received a big play in the Soviet press today as the second smashing blow to the “Italian expeditionary force.”
SPANISH REBELS FACING MUCH HARD FIGHTING YET; Loyalists’ Gains Against New Drive Indicate War Would Not Be Over Even If Madrid Should Fall
March 21, 1937, Sunday
The smashing defeats which the enemy forces on the Guadalajara front have received and which were climaxed on Thursday with the recapture of Brihuega have removed to the indefinite future any possibility of Madrid’s falling into Insurgent hands.
MUSSOLINI’S PRESTIGE IS QUESTIONED IN SPAIN; Madrid Loyalists Defeat Insurgents at Guadalajara and General Miaja Calls Italians ‘Tin Soldiers’
March 21, 1937, Sunday
General Miaja, commadner of the defenders of Madrid, announces that he has defeated Insurgent forces in the Guadalajara sector. He announces further that the Insurgents’ forces consistd mostly of two Italina divisions, that all the prisoners took there were Italinas and that he saw few other opposing neighoborhood.
REBELS ABANDONED VAST WAR STOCKS; Writer Finds All Along Front Northeast of Madrid Signs of a Panicky Retreat
March 21, 1937, Sunday
The four divisions of Rebels who attempted a drive on Madrid from the Northeast, reported to have been chiefly Italians, have been routed. For two days this army has fled in veritable panic before Spanish Leftist troops, which have been unable to make contact with them, despite a steady advance.
LEFTISTS MARCH ON AND FIND NO ENEMY; Day’s Advance Goes Almost to Almadrones, Where Franco Launched Drive
March 22, 1937, Monday
Government troops continued their victorious advance in Guadalajara Province today, capturing Cogollor, on the road from Cifuentes and about eight miles from Almadrones, where the Rebels started their drive two weeks ago.
Children Hid in a Cellar 9 Days in Brihuega Siege
March 22, 1937, Monday
FOE’S STAND SLOWS LEFTISTS’ ADVANCE; Spanish Rebels Rally North of Guadalajara as Weather Impedes Pursuers HEAVY FIGHTING IN SOUTH Insurgents Reported Repulsed in Attempts to Reach Mercury Mines Around Almaden Rebel Positions Bombed FOE’S STAND SLOWS LEFTISTS’ ADVANCE Valencia Is Bombed
March 23, 1937, Tuesday
The government troops’ advance in the Guadalajara sector slowed down today, first because the enemy at last rallied their disordered forces near Padilla de Hita, twenty miles north of Guadalajara, and secondly because of extremely poor weather.
LOYALIST ADVANCE CHEGKED BY REBELS; Insurgents at Padilla de Hita Block Government Troops, but Minor Gains Are Made
March 24, 1937, Wednesday
The situation on the Guadalajara front, northeast of Madrid, is rapidly approaching a deadlock as a result of resistance by Spanish Insurgent monarchists and Fascists, who originally held the line along the Soria road.
ITALY SHIFTS VIEW OF SPANISH ISSUE; Envoy to London Now Refuses Even to Discuss Withdrawal of Foreign Volunteers
Anglo-Italian pinpricks, which gradually have been increasing in number and getting deeper, brought a small explosion in a non-intervention subcommittee today simultaneously with Premier Benito Mussolini’s outburst in Rome.
DEADLOCK REACHED IN FIGHTING IN SPAIN; Extended Lull Is ForeseenBoth Sides Claim Success on Guadalajara Front
March 25, 1937, Thursday
The inevitable deadlock has now been reached on the Guadalajara front. This has permitted all eyes in Loyalist Spain to turn to international developments, particularly Italian activities.
Spanish Rebel Flier Slain After Bailing Out; Plane Machine-Guns Him as He Is Falling
March 27, 1937, Saturday
Combatants on the Guadalajara front watched a spectacular air drama today in which an Insurgent pilot was shot dead as he parachuted to the ground. His body fell inside the government lines and was buried.
MADRID DEFENSE FORCE BECOMES MORE SPANISH; Home Troops Now Share With Foreign Fighters Credit for Repulsing Attacks by the Rebels
March 28, 1937, Sunday
The success of the government forces on the Guadalajara front was a demonstration of their power, discipline and skill. Since people everywhere have come to regard the Spanish civil war as primarily a struggle of foreign powers on Spanish soil,
REBELS NOW LOOK FOR A LONGER WAR; Hopes for the Speedy Capture of Madrid Are Dashed by Guadalajara Developments
March 28, 1937, Sunday
Although the weather, to which the Insurgent command attributes the frustration of Generalissimo Francisco Franco’s offensive on the Guadal?? jara front, has improved greatly, there has been no renewal of important operations there yet.
Brihuega Likened by Hemingway To Victory on World War Scale; Loyalist Triumph in ‘Decisive’ Battle Is’Held Result of Perfectly Coordinated Attack-Battlefield Is Quict Now, but Dead Still Dot It-Italians Slew Hundreds of Own in Error Destroyed Road in Retreat Battle on World War Scale Tank Tracks Sinister More Than an Air Victory Italians Slew Hundreds of Own
March 29, 1937, Monday
It was bright and clear in the red hills north of Guadalajara as we stood on the rocky edge of a plateau, where a white road slanted down into a steep valley, and watched the Fascist troops on a tableland that rose sheer across the narrow valley.
DEFEAT OF ITALIANS HELD AID TO PEACE; French Believe It Will Check Rome’s Intervention in Spain, at Least for Time Being
March 31, 1937, Wednesday
How the defeat of the Italian detachments before Madrid has affected the international situation and how the decisions of the Non-Intervention Committee for Spain are to be carried out, will be discussed tomorrow by the French Cabinet at a meeting that will be largely devoted to foreign affairs.
Defeated Italian General Suicide in Spain, Is Report
April 5, 1937, Monday
Diplomats here said today they had reecived reports that an Italian general named Bergozzoli had committed suicide at Salamanca after receipt of a letter from Rome condemning him for the defeat of Italian troops on the Guadalajara front.
FRANCE AND ITALY STILL SPARRING; Paris Is Quizzical on Duce’s Visit to Hitler, Doubting Strength of Their Tie
There is every week just now new confirmation in the diplomatic world of Europe that the victory of the Spanish Government troops at Brihuega in driving back the encircling movement around Madrid of the Italian contingent among General Francisco Franco’s forces was of major importance.